Jupiter, Nine Planets in Universe
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet of the Solar System. It is the oldest planet of the Solar System thus it was the first to take shape out of the remains of the solar nebula.
Throughout the universe, there are many planetary systems similar to ours. Most of them contain terrestrial planets like our own and gas giants like Jupiter. However, they also contain super-Earths – planets that are several times more massive than Earth.
This indicates that our own Solar System should also have these types of planets and it is hypothesized that we did have them but they collided with Jupiter in the early formation of the Solar System. This resulted in Jupiter’s migration from the inner solar system to the outer solar system and thus allowed the inner solar planets to form. This theory is called the Grand Tack Hypothesis.
There are theories that hypothesize the fact that Jupiter may have formed before the Sun while others state that Jupiter formed after the sun about 4.5 billion years ago. Gravity pulled swirling gas and dust and resulted in the creation of Jupiter. Sometime around 4 billion years ago Jupiter settled in its current position in the outer solar system.
Distance, Size, and Mass
It is the fifth most distant from the Sun with an average distance of about 5.2 AU. The closest approach is at 4.9 AU and at its farthest 5.4 AU. Its exact position can be checked online since the planet is constantly tracked.
It is the biggest planet of the Solar System, with a mean radius of 43.440 miles / 69.911 km. Almost 11 times bigger than Earth. Jupiter’s radius is about 1/10 the radius of the Sun, and its mass is 0.001 times the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar.
The diameter at the equator of about 88.846 mi / 142.984 km, and at the poles, the diameter is only 83.082 mi / 133.708 km. The average density of Jupiter is about 1.326 g/cm3, much smaller than all the terrestrial planets.
Jupiter is also 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets combined, having 318 times the mass of Earth. It has a volume of about 1,321 Earths.
Orbit and Rotation
Jupiter rotates once every 10 hours – A Jovian day – thus it has the shortest day of all the planets in the solar system. A Jovian year, on the other hand, is about 12 Earth years, quite long in comparison to its short days. The orbital period is about two-fifths that of Saturn. The orbit of Jupiter is elliptical, inclined about 1.31 degrees when compared to Earth.
The eccentricity of the orbit is about 0.048. This results in its distance from the Sun varying from its perihelion to aphelion by about 75 million km / 46 mi. Jupiter’s upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation since it’s made out of gases.
To know about Saturn https://www.knowledgebeach.com/saturn-nine-planets-in-universe/